Second European Edition

by Daniel Schacter, Daniel Gilbert, Daniel Wegner and Bruce Hood

Weblinks and further reading

The links below provide access to a range of interesting websites and recommended books relating to each chapter. Click on the chapter headings to jump down to the different sections.

Chapter 1: Psychology – The evolution of a science
Chapter 2: The methods of psychology
Chapter 3: Neuroscience and behaviour
Chapter 4: Sensation and perception
Chapter 5: Memory
Chapter 6: Learning
Chapter 7: Language and thought
Chapter 8: Consciousness
Chapter 9: Intelligence
Chapter 10: Emotion and motivation
Chapter 11: Cognitive development
Chapter 12: Social development
Chapter 13: Personality
Chapter 14: Social relationships
Chapter 15: Social groups
Chapter 16: Psychological disorders
Chapter 17: Mental health

Chapter 1: Psychology – The evolution of a science

The British Psychological Society:
The BPS website provides a wealth of information about the history of the society, careers and qualifications in psychology, professional development for practising psychologists, news on conferences and events, relevant publications and a member network. Most of this information requires membership of the BPS. Information about application procedures and fees is also available on the website.

Classics in the History of Psychology:
An index of many of the works throughout the history of psychology.

Psychology’s Feminist Voices:
Timelines and profiles documenting notable women in the history of psychology.

This Week in the History of Psychology:
A series of podcasts hosted by Christopher Green at York University in Toronto, Canada.

Today in the History of Psychology:
Need to know exactly what went on today in the history of psychology? This is the website for you!

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Chapter 2: The Methods of psychology

Pope, Kenneth S. – Fallacies and Pitfalls in Psychology:
An index of 18 common mistakes made when doing research in psychology.

Statistics Hell:
Andy Field's website offers practical advice on how to use the SPSS package as well as providing recordings of his lectures and podcasts. This podcast deals with the t-test which is discussed in Chapter 2, but you may enjoy his other podcasts too for a flavour of some of the things you will encounter in more advanced classes.

Bayesian statistics - what it is and why we need it:
This site discusses the role of Bayesian statistics in psychology.

Research Randomizer:
A random number generator for when you need to randomize your samples in an experiment.

Cyberlab for Psychological Research:
This website provides a comprehensive guide to research methods, understanding journal articles, and APA formatting.

Skeptics Society:
Publisher of SKEPTIC magazine, the Skeptics Society is dedicated to the promotion of science and critical thinking, and to the investigation of extraordinary claims and revolutionary ideas. This is why statistics are so important when evaluating evidence.

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Chapter 3: Neuroscience and behaviour


Your Amazing Brain:
This award-winning UK website is an Aladdin’s cave of cool demonstrations about the brain.

Milestones in Neuroscience Research:
A history of the important discoveries in neuroscience.

Interactive Atlases: Digital Anatomist Project:
This features several illustrated and photographic maps of the brain and other parts of the body.

Use this interactive nervous system module to obtain an understanding of the body's inner workings in a unique manner.

What Is Epigenetics:
This covers the fundamentals of epigenetics.

Genetics Home Reference: Your Guide to Understanding Genetic Conditions:
Descriptions of genetic conditions that can affect the nervous system and links for other genetically related questions.

Brain Facts:
A 64-page primer on the brain and nervous system, and a starting point for a lay audience interested in neuroscience, published by the Society for Neuroscience.

The Importance of Twin Studies:
Twin studies' significance explained in relation to the real life example of homosexuality.

Suggested Reading

Armond, Stephen J., Fusco, Madeline M., Dewey, Maynard M. (1989). Structure of the Human Brain: A Photographic Atlas, 3rd Edition. Oxford University Press.
Pictures of the human brain in a spiral atlas.

Blumenfeld, Hal. (2002). Neuroanatomy through Clinical Cases. Sunderland, CT: Sinauer Associates.
Case presentations lay the framework for patient care, and this text provides cases that allow insight into the regions of the brain that are affiliated with particular afflictions or behavioural symptoms.

Defries, John C., McGuffin, Peter, McClearn, Gerald E., and Plomin, Robert (2000). Behavioural Genetics, 4th Edition. Worth Publishers.
An in-depth coverage of the complex interactions between genes, behaviour, and the environment.

Kandel, Eric R., Schwartz, James H., and Jessell, Thomas M. (2000). Principles of Neural Science. McGraw Hill.
An all-encompassing text on the different parts of the brain and the research associated with it by a Nobel Laureate and his colleagues.

Carey, Nessa. (2013). The Epigenetics Revolution: How Modern Biology Is Rewriting Our Understanding of Genetics, Disease, and Inheritance. Columbia university press.
An easy-to-understand and enjoyable read on epigenetics.

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Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception


Your Amazing Brain:
This award-winning UK website is an Aladdin’s cave of cool demonstrations. Go to the SuperSenses section where there is lots to discover on sensation and perception.

Landrigan, David T. - Illusions Gallery, UMass, Lowell:
An excellent source for many common and not-so-common visual illusions.

Suggested Reading

Sachs, Oliver (1985). The man who mistook his wife for a hat: And other clinical tales. New York: Touchstone.
The famous book that recounts the stories of individuals afflicted with fantastic perceptual and intellectual aberrations.

Ramachandran, V.S. and Blakeslee, Sandra (1998). Phantoms in the brain: Probing the mysteries of the human mind. New York: HarperCollins Publishers.
More stories about odd perceptual cases by one of the foremost experts in perceptual neuropsychology.

Peynaud, Emily (1996). The taste of wine: The art and science of wine appreciation. New Jersey: John Wiley and Sons.
Information about your senses and how they result in the perception of flavour related to wines.

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Chapter 5: Memory


Your Amazing Brain:
This is an award-winning UK website is an excellent resource for students. Test your memory and share memories in the “Your Memory” section. In the test yourself section you can take an online video test to see if you would make a good eyewitness.

About Memory - Exploratorium:
Features, exhibits, articles, lectures and additional memory links.

Memory Expansion Channel:
History, trivia, and tips for improving memory.

Improving Memory (Intelegen Inc.):
Theories and tips for improving memory.

Neuroscience for Kids – Memory Experiments:
Great resources for teaching younger children about memory and the role of neuroscience in memory (the games are fun for adults too).

Suggested Reading

Baddeley, A. (2004). Your Memory: A User’s Guide. Buffalo, NY: Firefly Books.
Illustrated guide to your memory and how to improve it.

Loftus, Elizabeth F., and Katherine Ketcham (1996). The Myth of Repressed Memory: False Memories and Allegations of Sexual Abuse. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin.
A memory expert shows that many “repressed” memories are false.

Noll, Richard, and Carol Turkington (2001). The Encyclopedia of Memory and Memory Disorders. New York: Facts on File.
An overview for general readers as well as professionals.

Schacter, D.L. (1996). Searching for Memory: The Brain, the Mind, and the Past. New York: BasicBooks.
Reviews of false memory, Alzheimer’s disease, recovered memories, and amnesia, with firsthand accounts from patients with brain injury or psychological trauma.

Tulving, E. and Craik, F. I. M. (Eds.) (2000). The Oxford Handbook of Memory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Several of the world’s leading memory scientists review the field in this accessible overview of recent research. Topics such as memory development in childhood and old age, memory impairment in brain injury and disease, and the emergence of memory functions from brain activity are addressed. Reviews of current behavioral, neuroimaging, and computer simulation theories of memory are also considered.

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Chapter 6: Learning


The Australian Emotion, Learning, and Psychophysiology Laboratory:
The Emotion, Learning, and Psychophysiology Laboratory is located in the School of Psychology at the University of Queensland, Australia. Their research investigates emotion, attention, human learning and their interrelation using methodologies from traditional cognitive psychology, psychophysiology and neuroscience. Basic processes and their application in experimental psychopathology are covered.

emTech (Emerging Technologies)—Learning Theories:
A list of dozens of links to information about influential learning theorists, theories, games, and so forth.

Suggested Reading

Pavlov, Ivan (1927). Conditioned reflexes. New York: Dover Publications.
Pavlov’s original work on classical conditioning.

Schmajuk, Nestor, and Holland, Peter (Eds.) (1998). Occasion setting: Associative learning and cognition in animals. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Over 60 years ago, B. F. Skinner proposed that a discriminative stimulus in an operant conditioning paradigm does not elicit a response but simply “sets the occasion” for the response to occur. The eminent group of experimental psychologists and theoreticians who wrote the chapters of this book discuss the current status of the data and theories concerning simple classical conditioning and occasion setting.

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Chapter 7: Language and thought


Strunk, William—Elements of Style—
An online version of the classic text that covers many of the basic rules of writing and grammar.

All about linguistics:
Informative site covering a wide range of language-related topics from language acquisition to syntax.

Open university - Decision making:
An introduction to decision making.

Suggested Reading

Chomsky, Noam (1996). Powers and Prospects: Reflections on Human Nature and the Social Order. Boston: South End Press.
The first collection to examine the relations between Chomsky’s philosophy and his politics. Essays on the Middle East, the scientific method, and linguistics.

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Chapter 8: Consciousness


Test yourself - change blindness:
Interactive demo of change blindness.

The Amazing Colour Changing Card Trick:
Do you think you are observant? Watch this astounding demonstration by Professor Richard Wiseman of the limits of human attention

A dog with narcolepsy:
A brief video of a dog that suffers from narcolepsy, an often debilitating sleep disorder.

Crash Course Psychology - video introduction to sleep:

Suggested Reading

Chabris, C. & Simons, D. (2011) The Invisible Gorilla. Harper Collins.
This is a really accessible book by the creators of the gorilla among the basketball demonstration. In it they deal with many misperceptions of consciousness and attention.

Damasio, A. (1999). The Feeling of What Happens: Body and Emotion in the Making of Consciousness. Orlando, FL: Harcourt.
Antonio Damasio, a prominent neurologist and scholar, follows his wildly successful book Descartes’ Error (1994) by examining the role of feelings in what makes us all conscious.

Dennett, D. C. (1991). Consciousness Explained. Boston: Little, Brown.
“Daniel C. Dennett, the director of the Center for Cognitive Studies at Tufts University, is one of a handful of philosophers who feel this quest is so important that they have become as conversant in psychology, neuroscience and computer science as they are in philosophy. Consciousness Explained is his attempt, as audacious as its title, to come up with a scientific explanation for that feeling, sometimes painful, sometimes exhilarating, of being alive and aware, the object of one’s own deliberations.” (From George Johnson’s review in The New York Times, November 10, 1991.)

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Chapter 9: Intelligence


Intelligence Test:
This is a fun website with lots of information and you can even take an IQ test if you dare!

Neuroscience for Kids - Smart Drugs:
A University of Washington site that has great starter questions and references on neuroscience topics.

Crash Course Psychology:
Entertaining and critical introduction to the psychology of intelligence and intelligence tests.

Suggested Reading

Hawkins, J., and Blakeslee, S. (2004). On Intelligence. New York: Times Books.
The creator of the Palm Pilot and a science writer take on neuroscience and computing as they relate to ideas of intelligence.

Thomas, D., and Inkson, K. (2004). Cultural Intelligence: People Skills for Global Business. San Francisco: Berret-Koehler.
Advice on a kind of intelligence that isn’t typically taught in the standard education system: how to relate to people in other cultures, particularly when conducting business.

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Chapter 10: Emotion and motivation


Empathy Test:
How empathetic are you? Take this online empathy test.

Paul Ekman:
Paul Ekman is one of the pioneers of human emotional expressions. The hit TV series, “Lie to Me” is based on Ekman, and on his webiste you can watch him explain how he uses micro expressions to detect subtle emotions and even liars!

Fake smiles:
You can take a test to see how good you are at spotting the difference between a fake smile and a real one on this BBC website.

Eating Disorders Research Team:
The eating disorders research team at the Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London has a variety of information and links about anorexia, bulimia, binge eating disorder as well as other eating disorders not otherwise specified (EDNOS). There is information about all the different projects as well as opportunities to take part in research.

Suggested Reading

Damasio, A. (2003). Looking for Spinoza: Joy, Sorrow, and the Feeling Brain. Orlando, FL: Harcourt.
“Antonio Damasio pursues a unifying theory in Looking for Spinoza. Why Spinoza? The philosopher, whom Damasio calls a “protobiologist,” firmly linked mind and body, paving the way for modern ideas of neurophysiology. Damasio examines this linkage, which ran counter to all scientific and religious thinking of Spinoza’s day, and lays out the reasoning and evidence behind its truth. Damasio also defines his terms, which is crucial, as he means something very specific when he says feeling (“always hidden, like all mental images”) instead of emotion (“actions or movements . . . visible to others as they occur in the face, in the voice, in specific behaviors”). Using an impressive array of biological and psychological research, Damasio makes a compelling case for his idea of the feeling brain as crucial for survival and sense of self.” (From editorial review)

Weiner, B. (1992). Human Motivation: Metaphors, Theories, and Research. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
Encompassing research and theory, the psychologist Bernard Weiner surveys classical and recent motivation theories and offers an exciting and challenging perspective.

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Chapter 11: Cognitive development


One of the best ways to get an appreciation of cognitive development is to see examples of the behaviour described in the chapter. Below is a list of weblinks to videos that demonstrate the behaviours described in the chapter:
Here is a full-length documentary that has been chopped up into eight sections covering the prenatal period.
Primitive infant reflexes (tonic neck, grasp, magnet, rooting, sucking, Moro and pull to sit).
Infant visual tracking from Peter Vishton.
Phenome discrimination from Janet Werker’s lab.
The visual cliff and effect of mother’s communication as used in Joe Campos’s lab.
Piaget’s A not B error.
Children failing and passing Piagetian conservation tasks.
Symbolic representation from Judy Deloache’s lab.
Children’s scale errors from Judy Deloache’s lab.
Perseveration errors on infant search and card sorting tasks from Yuko Munakata’s lab.
The gravity error on Hood’s tubes experiment from my lab.

Suggested Reading

A.M. Gopnik, A.N. Meltzoff & P.K. Kuhl (2001).The Scientist in the Crib: What Early Learning Tells Us About the Mind. Harper Paperbacks.
This is a very accessible book about early child development written for a general audience. The sort of book you might give as a present to someone interested in learning about cognitive development but without having to study at university.

U. Goswami (2004). Cognitive Development: The Learning Brain. Psychology Press.
This is a comprehensive overview of cognitive development for the more advanced undergraduate.

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Chapter 12: Social Development

Neonatal imitation.
Still face effect on infant’s emotional behaviour from Ed Tronick’s lab.
Mirror self recognition test.
This BBC Open University site has three examples of theory of mind:
1) the Sally Anne Task
2) the Smarties Task
3) inferring desires from non-verbal communication.
ASD child failing Sally Anne task.
Examples of delay of gratification.
Helpers and hinderers: Infant prosocial preferences from Kiley Hamlin and the Yale group.
Mary Ainsworth’s strange situation paradigm for assessing attachment.
Socially deprived rhesus monkeys from Harry Harlow’s lab.
Feral children: The case of Genie.
Joint attention and empathy in autism from Marian Sigman.
Hilarious example of joint attention and early communication in this famous viral video.
Gender identity in children.
Gender stereotypes in adults based on clothing.
Childhood imitation of aggression from Albert Bandura.

Suggested Reading

S. Gerhardt (2004). Why Love Matters: How Affection Shapes a Baby's Brain. Routledge.
This best-seller explains the effects of social deprivation in the classic studies of Harry Harlow, feral children and the plight of the more recent Romanian orphans. It weaves together Bowlby’s attachment theory and neuroscience of deprivation in a very readable style.

P. Rochat (2009) Others in Mind – Social Origins of Self-Consciousness. New York, N.Y.: Cambridge University Press.
One of the best recent books on the development of the self from the perspective of social inclusion.

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Chapter 13: Personality


Humanmetrics: Jung Typology Test:
A short self test of your personality type.

The Big Five:
An interactive Big Five test.

Theorists and Topics in Personality Psychology:
A wiki-style index of many of the major personality theorists and links to information about them.

Suggested Reading

Bandura, A. (1997). Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York: W. H. Freeman.
A presentation of Alfred Bandura’s theory that those with high self-efficacy expectancies, or the belief that one can achieve what one sets out to do, are healthier, more effective, and generally more successful than those with low self-efficacy expectancies.

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Chapter 14: Social Relationships

Crash Course Psychology - Aggression Vs. Altruism:

Sparknotes - Attraction:

Sparknotes - Helping Behaviour:

What is non-verbal communication:

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Chapter 15: Social Groups


The BBC Prison Study:
This is a site dedicated to the reconstruction of the 1971 Stanford Prison study by British social psychologists, Alex Haslam and Steve Riecher. There are lots of resources including video clips and an overview of the role of social psychology in the real world in a series of articles that Haslam and Riecher have written for the British Psychological Society publication, “The Psychologist.” A treasure trove of the relevance and application of social psychology.

The Lucifer Effect:
This is Phil Zimbardo’s site dedicated to the social psychology of evil. Here you can find out about the infamous Stanford Prison studies and watch a short film. There is a page of related links about prisons, terrorism and all manner of human evil.

Inquisitive Mind, Social Psychology for You:
An online quarterly magazine that publishes articles on social psychology for a general audience; the articles are written by postgraduate researchers. Free registration is required. The site includes a bibliography and blog.

Suggested Reading

Fog, A. (1999). Cultural Selection. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Agner Fog describes cultural selection theory, a relatively new interdisciplinary theory of cultural change applied to history, religion, art, peace and conflict, mass media, sexual behavior, and social control.

Zimbardo, P. (2007). The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil: Random House.
A psychological account of how ordinary people sometimes turn evil and commit unspeakable acts.

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Chapter 16: Psychological Disorder

This is a video made by the discovery channel for McGraw-Hill about bipolar depression.
This is a video made by the discovery channel for McGraw-Hill about the Nobel prize-winning mathematician John Nash who has schizophrenia. The film, “A Beautiful Mind” was based on his life story.

Suggested Reading

Bentall, R.P. (2003). Madness Explained: Psychosis and human nature. London: Allen Lane.
This is a critical look and appraisal of medical models of mental illness. Although this is packed with information and studies that are suitable for a textbook, it is delivered in a way that is accessible for the non-expert.

Osborn, I. (1999). Tormenting Thoughts and Secret Rituals: The Hidden Epidemic of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder: Dell Publishers
Osborn had a bout of obsessive-compulsive disorder while in medical training, and he narrates the unfolding understanding of the disease and its treatment informatively and readably.

Broks, P. (2004). Into the Silent Land: Travels in Neuropsychology: Atlantic Monthly Press
This book looks into how the human brain constructs a "self," or the essence of who we are as individuals. It could have been recommended for both Chapter 3 on neuroscience or Chapter 8 on consciousness but it’s broad discussion of mental health and implications for the sense of identity makes it totally relevant to this Chapter on abnormal psychology.

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Chapter 17: Mental Health

This the website from the British Psychogical Society that explains what clinical psychology is, how to become one and information about salary and job prospects.

Clinical Psychology – Making a Difference:
This is a video about training in clinical psychology in the UK made by Mark Smith and the University of Leeds. It demonstrates some of the different backgrounds trainees come from and some of the variety of work they engage in.

Suggested Reading

O’Connor, R. (1999) Undoing Depression: What therapy doesn’t teach you and medication can’t give you. Berkley Trade.
In this book, psychotherapist Richard O'Conner explains how to "undo" depression, by replacing depressive patterns of thinking, relating, and behaving with a new and more effective set of skills. He uses a holistic approach that synthesizes the best of the many schools of thought about depression.

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